Miscellaneous Early modern prisons were typically used for holding defendants awaiting trial and convicts awaiting punishment.
There was no gallows as such, but rather a stout vertical wooden pole or post of about meters height with a metal hook or eye bolt at the top to which a rope noose was attached.
There was either a ladder or steps up to a small platform at the back of the pole for the executioner to stand on. At the signal they were now jerked downwards by the assistants thus tightening the noose. This jerk combined with the thinness of the cord typically caused a carotid reflex and led to rapid unconsciousness.
Late 19th century Austrian hangman, Josef Lang, considered this method to be far more humane than American style standard drop hanging and claimed that no criminal suffered for more than a minute with his method.
It is unclear when pole hanging ceased although it was definitely in use until after the end of World War II and was used on various war criminals.
This film clearly demonstrates how pole hanging worked and does not give the impression that Frank struggled after suspension. There are also photos of the execution of Serbs by the Austrians during the war. Milada Horakova female who was convicted of treason by the communist regime in Czechoslovakia suffered this death when she was hanged on 27th of June They were executed under British occupation jurisdiction but it would seem that pole hanging returned for the last few executions carried out under Austrian jurisdiction.
The last took place on the 24th of March when Johann Trnka was hanged for murder. It is not known whether Hungary continued to use pole hanging or a more conventional gallows.
Where the standard drop proves inadequate to break the neck or cause unconsciousness, the prisoner seems to suffer a more cruel death than where little or no drop is used.
The force generated by a drop of 5 or 6 feet is very considerable and does great damage to the skin, muscles and ligaments of the neck but does not necessarily induce asphyxia any sooner.
This description of a hanging at San Quentin prison in California is from Clinton Duffy who was the warden there from to and relates to the execution of Major Raymond Lisemba on May 9th, I observed also that he urinated, defecated, and droppings fell on the floor, and the stench was terrible".
Some of them threw up. When he was taken down and the cap removed, "big hunks of flesh were torn off" the side of his face where the noose had been, "his eyes were popped," and his tongue was "swollen and hanging from his mouth.
His face had turned purple. See the description of the hanging of Westley Alan Dodd in Washington state in The measured or long drop. Here is an official government photograph of a long drop hanging in Kuwait.
The hyperflexion of the neck caused by the British style eyelet noose is self evident. It takes between a half and three quarters of a second for a person to reach the end of the rope after the trap opens, depending upon the length of drop given.
This leads to a number of factors, all of which can cause death. Typically the neck is constricted by as much as five inches from its original circumference.
In some of the photos of Kuwaiti hangings the leather or rubber washer is visible on the rope and one can get a good idea of the amount of constriction of the neck, as it was against the eyelet before the hanging and is designed not to move.
Fractures of the hyoid bone and larynx typically occur which on their own can prove fatal as breathing is severely restricted or prevented. The normal cause of death is given as comatose asphyxia. Some slight movements of the limbs and body may occasionally occur but are almost certainly due to muscular reflexes.
In most countries cessation of heartbeat is the definition of death that is used in judicial hanging. The typically occurs within minutes after the drop.
This time is very variable, however, with credible official reports of from minutes for cessation of heartbeat to have occurred. This time is often implied as length of suffering in newspaper reports of executions, but this is incorrect.
The recordings show a rise in pulse rate initially and then a diminishing and weakening of it over time Click here for print out. Again there had been fracture dislocation of the neck vertebrae.
It is thought that brain death will occur in around six minutes through lack of oxygen, irrespective of when the heart stops. Experiments were carried out by F. Buckland, the assistant director of pathology, British Army of the Rhine, on Nazi war criminals executed by the British at Hameln prison in Germany after World War II and these found, that although the prisoners were rendered unconscious by the drop the heart could continue to beat for up to 25 minutes after execution.
This created a problem because it meant that it would take far longer to carry out the batches of executions if each prisoner had to be left on the rope for an hour.
It was thus proposed that the medical officer present would inject 10cc of chloroform into the prisoner 30 seconds after the drop had been given. It was found that if the chloroform was injected directly into the heart it immediately stopped beating and if injected intravenously into the arm the heart would stop in seconds.
This procedure was first used at the execution of 10 men and three women on the 13th of December On the 8th of March Albert Pierrepoint hanged eight men at Hameln and it was decided not to inject chloroform. The prison doctor listened to their hearts with a stethoscope in the normal way and recorded his results.Capital punishment (execution, hanging, Physical punishment (e.g.
whipping, torture) Discuss with pupils why people are punished for crimes. If possible, keep this list to return to later. likely, given the previous history of the men. Crime 2: Margaret Kennedy was convicted.
Punishment Sentences at the Old Bailey Late 17th Century to the early 20th Century This article describes the types of punishment sentences imposed on convicts at London's central criminal court from the late 17th century to the early 20th century, as detailed in .
Mar 22, · George Orwell argues that Capital Punishment is wrong with a very weak argument using a narrative in “A Hanging”. “The Hanging” is a narrative of exactly that; a hanging. Orwell delicately words this piece so that you feel and experience what Orwell was experiencing.
Discuss how the writer’s style adds to the impact of the content. “A Hanging” by George Orwell is an influential, autobiographical essay, in which the subject of capital punishment is powerfully examined. The essay is based on a prisoner’s execution in a Prisoner of War camp in Burma during the Second World War.
Punishment Sentences at the Old Bailey Late 17th Century to the early 20th Century This article describes the types of punishment sentences imposed on convicts at London's central criminal court from the late 17th century to the early 20th century, as detailed in the Proceedings.
"Punishment is an evil inflicted upon a wrongdoer, as a wrongdoer, on behalf, and at the discretion of society in its corporate capacity, of which he is a permanent, or temporary, member." This would be a good deal like limiting the concept of sex to its expression in the married state.
It would exclude the punishment of captured enemies and animals.