An overview of jaundice

Print Overview of Bladder Cancer Bladder cancer accounts for approximately 90 percent of cancers of the urinary collecting system renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra. The bladder is an organ located in the pelvic cavity that stores and discharges urine.

An overview of jaundice

The pathology is occurring prior to the liver due to either: Intrinsic defects in RB cells B. Unconjugated bilirubin comes from the breakdown of the heme pigment found in red blood cells' hemoglobin.

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The increased breakdown of red blood cells leads to an increase in the amount of unconjugated bilirubin present in the blood and deposition of this unconjugated bilirubin into various tissues can lead to a jaundiced appearance.

In tropical countries, severe malaria can cause jaundice in this manner. Certain genetic diseasessuch as sickle cell anemiaspherocytosisthalassemiapyruvate kinase deficiencyand glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency can lead to increased red cell lysis and therefore hemolytic jaundice.

Commonly, diseases of the kidney, such as hemolytic uremic syndromecan also lead to coloration. In jaundice secondary to hemolysis, the increased production of bilirubin leads to the increased production of urine-urobilinogen.

Bilirubin is not usually found in the urine because unconjugated bilirubin is not water-soluble, so, the combination of increased urine-urobilinogen with no bilirubin since, unconjugated in urine is suggestive of hemolytic jaundice. Kernicterus is associated with increased unconjugated bilirubin not carried by albumin.

Newborns are especially vulnerable to this due to increased permeability of the blood brain barrier. Cell necrosis reduces the liver's ability to metabolize and excrete bilirubin leading to a buildup of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood.

Other causes include primary biliary cirrhosis leading to an increase in plasma conjugated bilirubin because there is impairment of excretion of conjugated bilirubin into the bile. The blood contains an abnormally raised amount of conjugated bilirubin and bile salts, which are excreted in the urine.

Jaundice seen in the newborn, known as neonatal jaundiceis common in newborns [15] as hepatic machinery for the conjugation and excretion of bilirubin does not fully mature until approximately two weeks of age.

Rat fever leptospirosis can also cause hepatic jaundice. In hepatic jaundice, there is invariably cholestasis. Laboratory findings depend on the cause of jaundice. Kernicterus is a condition not associated with increased conjugated bilirubin. Plasma protein show characteristic changes. Plasma albumin level is low but plasma globulins are raised due to an increased formation of antibodies.

Bilirubin transport across the hepatocyte may be impaired at any point between the uptake of unconjugated bilirubin into the cell and transport of conjugated bilirubin into biliary canaliculi. In addition, swelling of cells and oedema due to inflammation cause mechanical obstruction of intrahepatic biliary tree.

Hence in hepatocellular jaundice, concentration of both unconjugated and conjugated bilirubin rises in the blood. In hepatocellular disease, there is usually interference in all major steps of bilirubin metabolism—uptake, conjugation and excretion.

Excretion is the rate-limiting step, however, and usually impaired to the greatest extent. As a result, conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia predominates. This conjugated bilirubin is then returned to the blood, probably by rupture of the congested bile canaliculi and direct emptying of the bile into the lymph leaving the liver.

Thus, most of the bilirubin in the plasma becomes the conjugated type rather than the unconjugated type, and this conjugated bilirubin, which did not go to intestine to become urobilinogen, gives the urine the dark color. The most common causes are gallstones in the common bile ductand pancreatic cancer in the head of the pancreas.

Neonatal Jaundice : Symptoms, types, diagnosis, & treatment | FactDr

Also, a group of parasites known as " liver flukes " can live in the common bile duct, causing obstructive jaundice. Other causes include strictures of the common bile duct, biliary atresiacholangiocarcinomapancreatitischolestasis of pregnancyand pancreatic pseudocysts. A rare cause of obstructive jaundice is Mirizzi's syndrome gallstone impaction in the cystic duct or gallbladder neck, with the enlarged gallbladder squeezing on the common hepatic duct.

In complete obstruction of the bile duct, no urobilinogen is found in the urine, since bilirubin has no access to the intestine and it is in the intestine that bilirubin gets converted to urobilinogen by microorganisms, with the urobilinogen later being partially reabsorbed from the intestine into the general circulation, and then excreted into the urine.

An overview of jaundice

In this case, presence of bilirubin conjugated in the urine without urine-urobilinogen suggests obstructive jaundice, either intra-hepatic or post-hepatic. The presence of pale stools and dark urine suggests an obstructive or post-hepatic cause as normal feces get their color from bile pigments.

They can, however, occur in many intra-hepatic illnesses and are therefore not a reliable clinical feature to distinguish obstruction from hepatic causes of jaundice. A combination of liver function tests is essential to arrive at a diagnosis.Neonatal jaundice is the condition of elevated bilirubin at the time of birth.

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment present in hemoglobin (responsible for carrying oxygen in Red Blood Cells). An increase in the concentration of bilirubin above 3 mg per dL of blood causes neonatal jaundice. JAUNDICE OVERVIEW. Jaundice is a yellow discoloration of the skin and/or whites of the eyes that is often seen in newborn infants.

The discoloration is caused by a yellow substance called bilirubin. Infants with high blood levels of bilirubin, called hyperbilirubinemia, develop the yellow color when bilirubin accumulates in the skin. Jaundice is a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the whites of the eyes caused by increased amounts of bilirubin in the blood.

Jaundice is a sign of an underlying disease process. Bilirubin is a by-product of the daily natural breakdown and destruction of red blood cells in the body.

Treatment of bladder cancer depends on the stage of the cancer.

Jaundice Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Treatment options include different types of surgery (transurethral resection, radical and partial cystectomy, and urinary diversion), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy.

Learn more about how bladder cancer is treated. Overview of Chest Pain. There are many different causes of chest pains. Some of these causes are life-threatening and require immediate medical attention.

An overview of jaundice

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