Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire Sincewhen Edward Gibbon published the first volume of his The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman EmpireDecline and Fall has been the theme around which much of the history of the Roman Empire has been structured.
Visit Website Did you know? Four decades after Constantine made Christianity Rome's official religion, Emperor Julian—known as the Apostate—tried to revive the pagan cults and temples of the past, but the process was reversed after his death, and Julian was the last pagan emperor of Rome.
The magistrates, though elected by the people, were drawn largely from the Senate, which was dominated by the patricians, or the descendants of the original senators from the time of Romulus. Politics in the early republic was marked by the long struggle between patricians and plebeians the common peoplewho eventually attained some political power through years of concessions from patricians, including their own political bodies, the tribunes, which could initiate or veto legislation.
The Roman forum was more than just home to their Senate. These laws included issues of legal procedure, civil rights and property rights and provided the basis for all future Roman civil law. By around B. Military Expansion During the early republic, the Roman state grew exponentially in both size and power.
Though the Gauls sacked and burned Rome in B. Rome then fought a series of wars known as the Punic Wars with Carthage, a powerful city-state in northern Africa. In the Third Punic War — B. At the same time, Rome also spread its influence east, defeating King Philip V of Macedonia in the Macedonian Wars and turning his kingdom into another Roman province.
The first Roman literature appeared around B. The gap between rich and poor widened as wealthy landowners drove small farmers from public land, while access to government was increasingly limited to the more privileged classes.
Attempts to address these social problems, such as the reform movements of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus in B. Gaius Marius, a commoner whose military prowess elevated him to the position of consul for the first of six terms in B.
After Sulla retired, one of his former supporters, Pompey, briefly served as consul before waging successful military campaigns against pirates in the Mediterranean and the forces of Mithridates in Asia.
During this same period, Marcus Tullius Ciceroelected consul in 63 B. After earning military glory in Spain, Caesar returned to Rome to vie for the consulship in 59 B.
From his alliance with Pompey and Crassus, Caesar received the governorship of three wealthy provinces in Gaul beginning in 58 B. With old-style Roman politics in disorder, Pompey stepped in as sole consul in 53 B.
With Octavian leading the western provinces, Antony the east, and Lepidus Africa, tensions developed by 36 B. In the wake of this devastating defeat, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. He instituted various social reforms, won numerous military victories and allowed Roman literature, art, architecture and religion to flourish.
Augustus ruled for 56 years, supported by his great army and by a growing cult of devotion to the emperor. When he died, the Senate elevated Augustus to the status of a god, beginning a long-running tradition of deification for popular emperors.
The line ended with Nerowhose excesses drained the Roman treasury and led to his downfall and eventual suicide. The reign of Nervawho was selected by the Senate to succeed Domitian, began another golden age in Roman history, during which four emperors—Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius—took the throne peacefully, succeeding one another by adoption, as opposed to hereditary succession.
Under Antoninus PiusRome continued in peace and prosperity, but the reign of Marcus Aurelius — was dominated by conflict, including war against Parthia and Armenia and the invasion of Germanic tribes from the north. When Marcus fell ill and died near the battlefield at Vindobona Viennahe broke with the tradition of non-hereditary succession and named his year-old son Commodus as his successor.
Decline and Disintegration The decadence and incompetence of Commodus brought the golden age of the Roman emperors to a disappointing end.
His death at the hands of his own ministers sparked another period of civil warfrom which Lucius Septimius Severus emerged victorious. During the third century Rome suffered from a cycle of near-constant conflict.
A total of 22 emperors took the throne, many of them meeting violent ends at the hands of the same soldiers who had propelled them to power.Updated July 13, JUMP TO..
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COMPREHENSIVE SITES Includes info on a broad range of subjects relating to Rome. The Rise of Rome: The Making of the World's Greatest Empire - Kindle edition by Anthony Everitt. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.
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Oct 20, · The comparison question (is the U.S. like Rome and, if yes, is the end nigh?) was one Duncan heard constantly while working on the project and for . Sep 01, · Beginning in the eighth century B.C., Ancient Rome grew from a small town on central Italy’s Tiber River into an empire that at its peak encompassed most of continental Europe, Britain, much of.
Oct 20, · The comparison question (is the U.S. like Rome and, if yes, is the end nigh?) was one Duncan heard constantly while working on the project and for . The first Roman republican wars were wars of both expansion and defence, aimed at protecting Rome itself from neighbouring cities and nations and establishing its territory in the region.
Initially, Rome's immediate neighbours were either Latin towns and villages, or else tribal Sabines from the Apennine hills beyond. One by one Rome defeated both the persistent Sabines and the local cities.