For population problems all the ways for a population to enter the region are included in the entering rate.
Having a Glossary meant I could reduce the text on most pages, while expanding background for the definitions, and relating the ideas to other similar, contradictory, or more basic ideas.
Why Bother with Definitions? The value of a definition is insight. Simple descriptions are not always possible. Terms have meaning within particular contexts.
Tedious examples may be required to expose the full meaning. Good definitions can expose assumptions and provide a basis for reasoning to larger conclusions.
Consider the idea that cryptography is used to keep secrets: We expect a cipher to win each and every contest brought by anyone who wishes to expose secrets.
We call those people opponentsbut who are they really, and what can they do? In practice, we cannot know. Opponents operate in secret: We do not know their names, nor how many they are, nor where they work.
We do not know what they know, nor their level of experience or resources, nor anything else about them.
Because we do not know our opponents, we also do not know what they can do, including whether they can break our ciphers. Unless we know these things that cannot be known, we cannot tell whether a particular cipher design will prevail in battle.
We cannot expect to know when our cipher has failed. Even though the entire reason for using cryptography is to protect secret information, it is by definition impossible to know whether a cipher can do that.
Nobody can know whether a cipher is strong enough, no matter how well educated they are, or how experienced, or how well connected, because they would have to know the opponents best of all.
The definition of cryptography implies a contest between a cipher design and unknown opponents, and that means a successful outcome cannot be guaranteed by anyone. Sometimes the Significance is Implied Consider the cryptographer who says: First, the cryptographer has the great disadvantage of not being able to prove cipher strength, nor to even list every possible attack so they can be checked.
In contrast, the cryptanalyst might be able to actually demonstrate weakness, but only by dint of massive effort which may not succeed, and will not be compensated even if it does. Consequently, most criticisms will be extrapolations, possibly based on experience, and also possibly wrong.
The situation is inherently unbalanced, with a bias against the cryptographer's detailed and thought-out claims, and for mere handwave first-thoughts from anyone who deigns to comment.
This is the ultimate conservative bias against anything new, and for the status quo. Supposedly the bias exists because if the cryptographer's claim is wrong user secrets might be exposed.
But the old status-quo ciphers are in that same position. Nothing about an old cipher makes it necessarily strong.
Unfortunately, for users to benefit from cryptography they have to accept some strength argument. Many years of trusted use do not testify about strength, but do provide both motive and time for opponents to develop secret attacks.
Many failures to break a cipher do not imply it is strong.
There can be no expertise on the strength of unbroken ciphers. So on the one hand we need a cipher, and on the other have no way to know how strong the various ciphers are.
For an industry, this is breathtakingly disturbing. In modern society we purchase things to help us in some way. We go to the store, buy things, and they work.
Or we notice the things do not work, and take them back.GATE Coaching at Engineers Institute of India - EII. Join Eii most trusted and highly result producing GATE Coaching Institute, having well renowned faculties from IITs, IISc & reputed tranceformingnlp.com provide GATE-Classroom coaching & GATE-Postal Correspondence coaching as per the recent examination pattern.
Hyperlinked definitions and discussions of many terms in cryptography, mathematics, statistics, electronics, patents, logic, and argumentation used in cipher construction, analysis and production. A Ciphers By Ritter page. Separable Equations 73 Separable Equations An equation y0 = f(x,y) is called separable provided algebraic oper- ations, usually multiplication, division and factorization, allow it to be written in a separable form y0 = F(x)G(y) for some functions F and G.
Cryptology ePrint Archive: Search Results / (PDF) SoK: Modular and Efficient Private Decision Tree Evaluation Ágnes Kiss and Masoud Naderpour and Jian Liu .
Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two. Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs.. For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get .
Differential Equations Here are my notes for my differential equations course that I teach here at Lamar University.
Despite the fact that these are my “class notes”, they should be accessible to anyone wanting to learn how to solve differential equations or needing a refresher on differential equations.