This seemingly small conflict between two countries spread rapidly: Western and eastern fronts quickly opened along the borders of Germany and Austria-Hungary. The Western and Eastern Fronts The first month of combat consisted of bold attacks and rapid troop movements on both fronts.
Visit Website The assassination of Franz Ferdinand set off a rapidly escalating chain of events: Austria-Hungarylike many in countries around the world, blamed the Serbian government for the attack and hoped to use the incident as justification for settling the question of Serbian nationalism once and for all.
The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary then sent an ultimatum to Serbia, with such harsh terms as to make it almost impossible to accept. World War I Begins Convinced Serbia in ww1 Austria-Hungary was readying for war, the Serbian government ordered the Serbian army to mobilize, and appealed to Russia for assistance.
On August 4,German troops crossed the border into Belgium. In the first battle of World War I, the Germans assaulted the heavily fortified city of Liegeusing the most powerful weapons in their arsenal—enormous siege cannons—to capture the city by August Leaving Serbia in ww1 and destruction in their wake, including the shooting of civilians and the execution of a Belgian priest, whom they accused of inciting civilian resistance, the Germans advanced through Belgium towards France.
First Battle of the Marne In the First Battle of the Marnefought from September, French and British forces confronted the invading Germany army, which had by then penetrated deep into northeastern France, within 30 miles of Paris. The Allied troops checked the German advance and mounted a successful counterattack, driving the Germans back to north of the Aisne River.
The defeat meant the end of German plans for a quick victory in France. Both sides dug into trenches, and the Western Front was the setting for a hellish war of attrition that would last more than three years. Particularly long and costly battles in this campaign were fought at Verdun February-December and the Battle of the Somme July-November German and French troops suffered close to a million casualties in the Battle of Verdun alone.
This increased hostility was directed toward the imperial regime of Czar Nicholas II and his unpopular German-born wife, Alexandra. Russia reached an armistice with the Central Powers in early Decemberfreeing German troops to face the remaining Allies on the Western Front.
America Enters World War I At the outbreak of fighting inthe United States remained on the sidelines of World War I, adopting the policy of neutrality favored by President Woodrow Wilson while continuing to engage in commerce and shipping with European countries on both sides of the conflict.
InGermany declared the waters surrounding the British Isles to be a war zone, and German U-boats sunk several commercial and passenger vessels, including some U. Widespread protest over the sinking by U-boat of the British ocean liner Lusitania —traveling from New York to Liverpool, England with hundreds of American passengers onboard—in May helped turn the tide of American public opinion against Germany.
Germany sunk four more U. Gallipoli Campaign With World War I having effectively settled into a stalemate in Europe, the Allies attempted to score a victory against the Ottoman Empire, which entered the conflict on the side of the Central Powers in late After a failed attack on the Dardanelles the strait linking the Sea of Marmara with the Aegean SeaAllied forces led by Britain launched a large-scale land invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula in April The invasion also proved a dismal failure, and in January Allied forces were staged a full retreat from the shores of the peninsula, after sufferingcasualties.
The young Winston Churchill, then first lord of the British Admiralty, resigned his command after the failed Gallipoli campaign inaccepting a commission with an infantry battalion in France.
British-led forces also combated the Ottoman Turks in Egypt and Mesopotamiawhile in northern Italy, Austrian and Italian troops faced off in a series of 12 battles along the Isonzo River, located at the border between the two nations.
British and French—and later, American—troops arrived in the region, and the Allies began to take back the Italian Front. The biggest naval engagement of World War I, the Battle of Jutland May left British naval superiority on the North Sea intact, and Germany would make no further attempts to break an Allied naval blockade for the remainder of the war.
Second Battle of the Marne With Germany able to build up its strength on the Western Front after the armistice with Russia, Allied troops struggled to hold off another German offensive until promised reinforcements from the United States were able to arrive.
On July 15,German troops launched what would become the last German offensive of the war, attacking French forces joined by 85, American troops as well as some of the British Expeditionary Force in the Second Battle of the Marne. The Allies successfully pushed back the German offensive, and launched their own counteroffensive just three days later.
The Second Battle of the Marne turned the tide of war decisively towards the Allies, who were able to regain much of France and Belgium in the months that followed.
Toward Armistice By the fall ofthe Central Powers were unraveling on all fronts. Despite the Turkish victory at Gallipoli, later defeats by invading forces and an Arab revolt had combined to destroy the Ottoman economy and devastate its land, and the Turks signed a treaty with the Allies in late October Austria-Hungary, dissolving from within due to growing nationalist movements among its diverse population, reached an armistice on November 4.
Facing dwindling resources on the battlefield, discontent on the homefront and the surrender of its allies, Germany was finally forced to seek an armistice on November 11,ending World War I.
Treaty of Versailles At the Paris Peace Conference inAllied leaders would state their desire to build a post-war world that would safeguard itself against future conflicts of such devastating scale. As the years passed, hatred of the Versailles treaty and its authors settled into a smoldering resentment in Germany that would, two decades later, be counted among the causes of World War II.
Civilian casualties caused indirectly by the war numbered close to 10 million. The two nations most affected were Germany and France, each of which sent some 80 percent of their male populations between the ages of 15 and 49 into battle.
The political disruption surrounding World War I also contributed to the fall of four venerable imperial dynasties—Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia and Turkey. World War I brought about massive social upheaval, as millions of women entered the workforce to support men who went to war, and to replace those who never came back.
The severe effects that chemical weapons such as mustard gas and phosgene had on soldiers and civilians during World War I galvanized public and military attitudes against their continued use.
The Geneva Convention agreements, signed inrestricted the use of chemical and biological agents in warfare, and remains in effect today.The Medical Front, WWI - all medical aspects, military and civilian, of World War One, the Great War, including the Flu Pandemic of 1.
Introduction. An analysis of British and German propaganda aimed at Americans during World War One reveals four main trends: blaming the other for the war, claims that America’s interests were antithetical to those of the enemy, exposure of the enemy’s atrocities, and claims of cultural or racial solidarity with America.
A History of the Great War (WW1) told by listing day by day events in a timeline - World War I - Italy and the Italian front, – Great Britain, France, and Russia concluded on April 26, , the secret Treaty of London with Italy, inducing the latter to discard the obligations of the Triple Alliance and to enter the war on the side of the Allies by the promise of territorial aggrandizement at Austria-Hungary’s expense.
MEDAL OF HONOR WW1 RECIPIENTS - ) *N.B. An asterisk in the citation indicates that the award was given posthumously. The President of the United States in the name of the Congress takes pleasure in presenting.
The United States World War One Centennial Commission The Library of Congress • U.S. National Archives • U.K. National Archives Organization of American Historians • .