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Learn more about how these two key philosophers were related and how their teachings differed.
These features represent the contributions of scholars of many generations and countries, as does the ongoing attempt to correct for corruption. Important variant readings and suggestions are commonly printed at the bottom of each page of text, forming the apparatus criticus.
In the great majority of cases only one decision is possible, but there are instances—some of crucial importance—where several courses can be adopted and where the resulting readings have widely differing import. The work of the translator imports another layer of similar judgments.
Some Greek sentences admit of several fundamentally different grammatical construals with widely differing senses, and many ancient Greek words have no neat English equivalents.
A notable artifact of the work of translators and scholars is a device of selective capitalization sometimes employed in English.
Others have employed a variant of this convention in which capitalization is used to indicate a special way in which Plato is supposed to have thought of the forms during a certain period i.
Still others do not use capital letters for any such purpose. Readers will do best to keep in mind that such devices are in any case only suggestions. In recent centuries there have been some changes in the purpose and style of English translations of ancient philosophy.
The great Plato translation by Benjamin Jowett —93for example, was not intended as a tool of scholarship; anyone who would undertake such a study already knew ancient Greek. At the other extreme was a type of translation that aimed to be useful to serious students and professional philosophers who did not know Greek; its goal was to indicate as clearly as possible the philosophical potentialities of the text, however much readability suffered in consequence.
Exemplars of this style, which was much in vogue in the second half of the 20th century, are the series published by the Clarendon Press and also, in a different tradition, the translations undertaken by followers of Leo Strauss — Except in a few cases, however, the gains envisioned by this notion of fidelity proved to be elusive.
This is particularly true of the short, Socratic dialogues. In the case of works that are large-scale literary masterpieces, such as the Phaedrus, a translation of course cannot match the artistry of the original. Finally, because translators of difficult technical studies such as the Parmenides and the Sophist must make basic interpretive decisions in order to render any English at all, reading their work is very far from reading Plato.
In the case of these dialogues, familiarity with commentaries and other secondary literature and a knowledge of ancient Greek are highly desirable. Yet he also made notoriously negative remarks about the value of writing. Similarly, although he believed that at least one of the purposes—if not the main purpose—of philosophy is to enable one to live a good life, by composing dialogues rather than treatises or hortatory letters he omitted to tell his readers directly any useful truths to live by.
Plato conversing with his pupils, mosaic from Pompeii, 1st century bce. Moreover, it is a possession that each person must win for himself. The writing or conversation of others may aid philosophical progress but cannot guarantee it.
Contact with a living person, however, has certain advantages over an encounter with a piece of writing. As Plato pointed out, writing is limited by its fixity: So it is only natural that Plato had limited expectations about what written works could achieve.
On the other hand, he clearly did not believe that writing has no philosophical value. His use of dramatic elements, including humour, draws the reader in.
Plato is unmatched in his ability to re-create the experience of conversation.
The dialogues contain, in addition to Socrates and other authority figures, huge numbers of additional characters, some of whom act as representatives of certain classes of reader as Glaucon may be a representative of talented and politically ambitious youth.
These characters function not only to carry forward particular lines of thought but also to inspire readers to do the same—to join imaginatively in the discussion by constructing arguments and objections of their own.
Spurring readers to philosophical activity is the primary purpose of the dialogues. Because Plato himself never appears in any of these works and because many of them end with the interlocutors in aporia, or at a loss, some scholars have concluded that Plato was not recommending any particular views or even that he believed that there was nothing to choose between the views he presented.
But the circumstance that he never says anything in his own person is also compatible with the more common impression that some of the suggestions he so compellingly puts forward are his own.
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Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Main Index. First World War poets and poetry. Minds at War The classic poems of First World War, popular poems of the time, lesser known poets . Education of the Senses: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud (Vol. 1) [Peter Gay] on tranceformingnlp.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. “The most learned, as well as the wittiest survey of human sexuality ever to be published.” ― New York Times Education of the Senses draws on a vast array of primary sources to reexamine .
Hilliard’s poems “For Jo Ann: Love Senses” and “Blind Love” shows us of the . Michael Peter Garofalo. Green Way Research, Valley Spirit Center, Vancouver, Washington. City of Vancouver, Clark County, State of Washington, Columbia River Valley, Northwest USA (April ).
The Academy of American Poets is the largest membership-based nonprofit organization fostering an appreciation for contemporary poetry and supporting American poets.
For over three generations, the Academy has connected millions of people to great poetry through programs such as National Poetry. I: WAR  We have heard our political leaders say from time to time that “War is necessary,” “War is a good thing.” They were trying to establish a major premise which would suggest the conclusion, “Therefore let us have a little war now,” or “It is wise, on general principles, to have a war once in a while.”.
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of tranceformingnlp.com war is one of the most important events in Greek mythology and has been narrated through many works of Greek literature, most notably Homer's tranceformingnlp.com core of the Iliad (Books II – .